Chikungunya history and symptoms
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Chikungunya which follows a bite of an infected mosquito Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus carrying chikungunya virus, can either present as an asymptomatic or as a symptomatic disease. The most common symptoms of the symptomatic disease include fever, arthralgia or polyarthritis, and maculopapular rash.
History and Symptoms
While few infected with chikungunya virus become asymptomatic (around 3-28%), most of the individuals will develop some symptoms after an incubation period of 3-7 days (range: 1-12 days). The symptoms of the disease can manifest as any of the following clinical forms.
- High fever: High fever is the most characteristic acute symptom. It is usually
- Sudden in onset.
- Lasts from several days up to a week.
- Typically >39°C [102°F].
- Continuous or intermittent.
- May be associated with relative bradycardia.
- Arthralgia or polyarthritis: Arthralgia or polyarthritis is another characteristic acute symptom of the disease that follows fever. Polyarthritis is usually
- Affects 10 or >10 joint groups.
- Most commonly involves the hands and feet, but can also affect the proximal joints.
- Associated with tenosynovitis.
- Severe and debilitating, confining the patients to bed and thus affecting their normal day to day activities.
- Rash: Half the patients are affected by rash that usually occurs 2-5 days after the onset of fever. The rashes are
- Other symptoms may include headache, myalgia, conjunctivitis, nausea, vomiting, and diffuse back pain.
Subacute and Chronic Disease
Subacute and chronic disease can manifest as any of the following after an acute stage.
- Swollen and stiff joints
- Swollen joints with fine desquamation
- Hygroma at the joints
Besides the typical symptoms, the disease can atypically present with any of the following clinical manifestations due to the virus itself, immunological response to the virus, or drug toxicity.
- Neonatal infection due to vertical transmission:
- Other possible associations:
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