Anaphylaxis causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Vidit Bhargava, M.B.B.S [2]Soumya Sachdeva, , Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Dushka Riaz, MD


Anaphylaxis can have IgE-mediated, non IgE-mediated and nonimmunologic triggers. IgE mediated allergens include reactions to food, medications and animal dander. Non-IgE mediated reactions can be caused by IVIG, biologic agents and NSAIDs. Nonimmunologic triggers to anaphylaxis include radiocontrast media, opiates, and changes in temperature. [1] Adult cases are more commonly caused by medications and insect stings while children are more triggered by food. [2]

Life Threatening Causes

Anaphylaxis is itself a life-threatening condition caused by various allergens. [1]


Common Causes

Anaphylaxis can occur in response to any allergen. Common causes include: [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]

  • Food allergies (peanuts, milk, eggs, seafood, nuts, grains, beans, gelatin in capsules)
  • Insect bites/stings (yellow jacket, yellow and baldfaced hornets, paper wasp, honey bee, imported fire ants)
  • Nonpollen allergen extracts (dust mites, dander of cats, dogs, horses and laboratory animals)

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular No underlying causes
Chemical/Poisoning No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Abatacept, Acetaminophen, Agalsidase beta, Alemtuzumab, Alglucosidase alfa, Amifostine, Aminohippurate, Amoxycillin, Amphotericin B, Ampicillin, Ancrod, Anidulafungin, Antihypertensive drug allergy, Aprotinin, Asparaginase, Aspirin, Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride, Aztreonam, Basiliximab, Belimumab, Cefadroxil, choriogonadotropin alfa, Cefotaxime sodium, Ceftazidime, Ceftriaxone, Cefaclor Cephalosporins, Ciprofloxacin, caspofungin acetate, Cefoxitin sodium, Cetrorelix, Coagulation factor IX,Coagulation factor XIII A-subunit, conestat alfa, cromolyn, Clemastine, Cyanocobalamin, Cytarabine, cytomegalovirus immune globulin, Dacarbazine, Denileukin diftitox, Desmopressin, Diphenhydramine, Doxycycline, Ecallantide, Elosulfase alfa, Epirubicin , Ergonovine, ethanolamine oleate, Ferric Carboxymaltose,fibrinogen, Fluoxymesterone, fosaprepitant, Gadobenate Dimeglumine,Gadoteridol, Gadoterate, gadoxetate, galsulfase, Ganirelix, Gemifloxacin mesylate, Gluten allergy , Glucarpidase, Hepatitis B immunoglobulin,hexaminolevulinate, hydroxyethyl starch, Idelalisib, Idursulfase, Imipenem, Indinavir, Interferon beta- 1a, Interferon beta- 1b, Interleukin 11, Isosulfan blue, lamivudine, laronidase, Lidocaine (ointment), Lincomycin Hydrochloride, Local anaesthetic allergy , Meropenem, Micafungin sodium, Morphine allergy , Netupitant and palonosetron, Niacin, Norfloxacin, Novacaine drug allergy, Omalizumab, Oxaliplatin, Oxaprozin, Oxytetracycline, Palivizumab, Papain, Pegaspargase, *Peginterferon Beta-1a,Pegloticase, Penicillin, p-Phenylenediamine, Polidocanol , Prednisolone,Protamine sulfate, Probenecid, Piperacillin, Rabeprazole, Rasburicase, Secukinumab, Sodium aurothiomalate, Sorafenib, Streptokinase, Sulfacetamide, Sulfasalazine, Sulphonamides, Spironolactone, Telavancin hydrochloride, Thallous Chloride Tl 201, Tolmetin, Trospium, trichophyton mentagrophytes and trichophyton rubrum, tuberculin, Zopiclone, Chlorhexidine gluconate, taliglucerase alfa
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine No underlying causes
Environmental Ant bite, urticaria, Baby bottle nipples induced, Bee sting, Caffeine allergy, Condoms and diaphragms induced allergies, Exercise, Fire ant bite , Fire coral poisoning, amaranth, Food additive allergy , Food allergy, Fruit allergy, Glafenine, Greenhead ant sting , Herbal agent adverse reaction, Hymenoptera venom, Inch ant sting , Jack jumper ant sting, Non-food allergy -- africanized honeybee, ant, black fire ant, bumblebee, dust mites, honey bee, hornet, mosquito, red fire ant, scorpion, tropical fire ant, wasp, yellow jacket wasp, Nut allergy, Oriental hornet poisoning, Peanut allergy, Red imported fire ant sting, Seafood allergy, Shellfish allergy, Spice allergy, Spider bite, Wasp sting, Wound drains and tubes induced allergies
Gastroenterologic Alveolar hydatid disease
Genetic No underlying causes
Hematologic Blood transfusion and complications, Bone marrow transplantation
Iatrogenic Contrast x-ray test dye reaction
Infectious Disease Echinococcus granulosus
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic No underlying causes
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional/Metabolic No underlying causes
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic No underlying causes
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary Asthma
Renal/Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Autoimmune urticaria, Hives, Hydatidosis , Serum sickness, Systemic mastocytosis, Type 1 hypersensitivity,
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Egg allergy, Handgrips induced allergies , Latex catheters induced allergies , Pacifiers induced allergies, Sterilization agents, Stethoscope induced allergies

Causes in Alphabetical Order


  1. 1.0 1.1 LoVerde D, Iweala OI, Eginli A, Krishnaswamy G (2018). "Anaphylaxis". Chest. 153 (2): 528–543. doi:10.1016/j.chest.2017.07.033. PMC 6026262. PMID 28800865.
  2. Commins SP (2017). "Outpatient Emergencies: Anaphylaxis". Med Clin North Am. 101 (3): 521–536. doi:10.1016/j.mcna.2016.12.003. PMC 5381731. PMID 28372711.
  3. Simons FE, Ardusso LR, Bilò MB, El-Gamal YM, Ledford DK, Ring J; et al. (2011). "World Allergy Organization anaphylaxis guidelines: summary". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 127 (3): 587-93.e1-22. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.01.038. PMID 21377030.
  4. Boyce JA, Assa'ad A, Burks AW, Jones SM, Sampson HA, Wood RA; et al. (2010). "Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States: Summary of the NIAID-Sponsored Expert Panel Report". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 126 (6): 1105–18. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.10.008. PMC 4241958. PMID 21134568.
  5. Sicherer SH, Sampson HA (2014). "Food allergy: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 133 (2): 291–307, quiz 308. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.11.020. PMID 24388012.
  6. Fischer D, Vander Leek TK, Ellis AK, Kim H (2018). "Anaphylaxis". Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 14 (Suppl 2): 54. doi:10.1186/s13223-018-0283-4. PMC 6156836. PMID 30263034.
  7. "StatPearls". 2021. PMID 29489197.
  8. Tupper J, Visser S (2010). "Anaphylaxis: A review and update". Can Fam Physician. 56 (10): 1009–11. PMC 2954079. PMID 20944042.
  9. Worm M, Babina M, Hompes S (2013). "Causes and risk factors for anaphylaxis". J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 11 (1): 44–50. doi:10.1111/j.1610-0387.2012.08045.x. PMID 23181736.
  10. Poziomkowska-Gęsicka I, Kurek M (2020). "Clinical Manifestations and Causes of Anaphylaxis. Analysis of 382 Cases from the Anaphylaxis Registry in West Pomerania Province in Poland". Int J Environ Res Public Health. 17 (8). doi:10.3390/ijerph17082787. PMC 7215547 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 32316622 Check |pmid= value (help).
  11. Schmoldt A, Benthe HF, Haberland G (1975). "Digitoxin metabolism by rat liver microsomes". Biochem Pharmacol. 24 (17): 1639–41. PMID Check |pmid= value (help).

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