Chronic stable angina risk stratification

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Chronic stable angina Microchapters

Acute Coronary Syndrome Main Page


Patient Information


Historical Perspective


Chronic Stable Angina
Walk through Angina
Mixed Angina
Nocturnal Angina
Postprandial Angina
Cardiac Syndrome X
Vasospastic Angina

Differentiating Chronic Stable Angina from Acute Coronary Syndromes


Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Stratification

Pretest Probability of CAD in a Patient with Angina



History and Symptoms

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Test Selection Guideline for the Individual Basis

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Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy with Thallium


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Coronary Angiography


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Hybrid Coronary Revascularization

Alternative Therapies for Refractory Angina

Transmyocardial Revascularization (TMR)
Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS)
Enhanced External Counter Pulsation (EECP)
ACC/AHA Guidelines for Alternative Therapies in patients with Refractory Angina

Discharge Care

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Secondary Prevention

Guidelines for Asymptomatic Patients

Noninvasive Testing in Asymptomatic Patients
Risk Stratification by Coronary Angiography
Pharmacotherapy to Prevent MI and Death in Asymptomatic Patients

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Case #1

Chronic stable angina risk stratification On the Web

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Risk calculators and risk factors for Chronic stable angina risk stratification

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [2]; Smita Kohli, M.D.; Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan, M.B.B.S. ;Arzu Kalayci, M.D. [3]


The average mortality in patients with stable angina ranges from 1-3%. However, the prognosis varies widely depending on various factors such as: the duration and severity of symptoms, resting ECG abnormalities, abnormal left ventricular function and associated comorbidities.[1]

Risk Stratification

Risk Stratification Based on Different Factors

Anatomic Factors

Clinical Factors

An initial scoring system was proposed by the Framingham Heart Study group to predict 10 year risk for patients with CAD based upon:

For a full discussion on individual risk stratifying topics, visit the microchapters below:

  • Exercise testing for Risk Stratification and Prognosis:

Risk Stratification Categories and Appropriate Management

Risk Stratification of Chronic Stable Angina in Symptomatic Patients

The next step after establishing the clinical probability of angina is to assess the risk of underlying coronary artery disease based on initial rest ECG and the patients ability to exercise.

ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/ STS 2017 Appropriate Use Criteria for Coronary Revascularization in Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease

Noninvasive Risk Stratification
High risk (>3% annual death or MI)

1. Severe resting LV dysfunction (LVEF <35%) not readily explained by noncoronary causes

2. Resting perfusion abnormalities ≥10% of the myocardium in patients without prior history or evidence of MI

3. Stress ECG findings including ≥2 mm of ST-segment depression at low workload or persisting into recovery, exercise-induced ST-segment elevation, or exercise-induced VT/VF

4. Severe stress-induced LV dysfunction (peak exercise LVEF <45% or drop in LVEF with stress ≥10%)

5. Stress-induced perfusion abnormalities encumbering ≥10% myocardium or stress segmental scores indicating multiple vascular territories with abnormalities

6. Stress-induced LV dilation

7. Inducible wall motion abnormality (involving >2 segments or 2 coronary beds)

8. Wall motion abnormality developing at low dose of dobutamine (≤ 10 mg/kg/min) or at a low heart rate (<120 beats/min)

9. CAC score >400 Agatston units

10. Multivessel obstructive CAD (≥70% stenosis) or left main stenosis (≥50% stenosis) on CCTA

Intermediate risk (1% to 3% annual death or MI)

1. Mild/moderate resting LV dysfunction (LVEF 35% to 49%) not readily explained by noncoronary causes

2. Resting perfusion abnormalities in 5% to 9.9% of the myocardium in patients without a history or prior evidence of MI

3. ≥1 mm of ST-segment depression occurring with exertional symptoms

4. Stress-induced perfusion abnormalities encumbering 5% to 9.9% of the myocardium or stress segmental scores (in multiple segments) indicating 1 vascular territory with abnormalities but without LV dilation

5. Small wall motion abnormality involving 1 to 2 segments and only 1 coronary bed

6. CAC score 100 to 399 Agatston units

7. One vessel CAD with ≥70% stenosis or moderate CAD stenosis (50% to 69% stenosis) in ≥2 arteries on CCTA

Low risk (<1% annual death or MI)

1. Low-risk treadmill score (score ≥5) or no new ST segment changes or exercise-induced chest pain symptoms; when achieving maximal levels of exercise

2. Normal or small myocardial perfusion defect at rest or with stress encumbering <5% of the myocardium*

3. Normal stress or no change of limited resting wall motion abnormalities during stress

4. CAC score <100 Agaston units 5. No coronary stenosis >50% on CCTA

CAC indicates coronary artery calcium; CAD, coronary artery disease; CCTA, coronary computed tomography angiography; LV, left ventricular; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; and MI, myocardial infarction.

Guidelines for Risk Stratification of Chronic Stable Angina

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  1. Daly CA, De Stavola B, Sendon JL, Tavazzi L, Boersma E, Clemens F et al. (2006) Predicting prognosis in stable angina--results from the Euro heart survey of stable angina: prospective observational study. BMJ 332 (7536):262-7. DOI:10.1136/bmj.38695.605440.AE PMID: 16415069

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