Eczema screening

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1], Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Edzel Lorraine Co, D.M.D., M.D.


Hanifin and Rajka criteria are the gold standard for diagnosing eczema. [1] [2]

Eczema screening

Table 1. Hanifin and Rajka Criteria "" (PDF).
Major Criteria Minor Criteria
Pruritus Xerosis
Typical morphology and distribution, flexural lichenification in adults, facial and extensor eruptions in infants and children Ichthyosis / palmar hyper-linearity, keratosis pilaris
Chronic or chronically relapsing dermatitis Immediate (type 1) skin-test reactivity
Personal or family history of atopy (asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis) Raised serum IgE
Early age of onset
Tendency toward cutaneous infections (especially Staphylococcus aureus and herpes simplex virus), impaired cell-mediated immunity
Tendency toward non-specific hand or foot dermatitis.
Nipple eczema
Recurrent conjunctivitis
Dennie-Morgan infraorbital fold
Anterior subcapsular cataracts
Orbital darkening
Facial pallor, facial erythema
Pityriasis alba
Anterior neck folds
Itch when sweating.
Intolerance to wool and lipid solvents.
Perifollicular accentuation
Food intolerance
Course influenced by environmental or emotional factors
White dermographism, delayed blanch.


  1. Eichenfield LF, Tom WL, Chamlin SL, Feldman SR, Hanifin JM, Simpson EL; et al. (2014). "Guidelines of care for the management of atopic dermatitis: section 1. Diagnosis and assessment of atopic dermatitis". J Am Acad Dermatol. 70 (2): 338–51. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2013.10.010. PMC 4410183. PMID 24290431.
  2. Schulte-Herbrüggen O, Fölster-Holst R, von Elstermann M, Augustin M, Hellweg R (2007). "Clinical relevance of nerve growth factor serum levels in patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis". Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 144 (3): 211–6. doi:10.1159/000103994. PMID 17579279.
  3. Avena-Woods C (2017). "Overview of atopic dermatitis". Am J Manag Care. 23 (8 Suppl): S115–S123. PMID 28978208.