Endocarditis historical background
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2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease
Endocarditis historical background On the Web
- In 1554: Earliest report of endocarditis in medical books.
- In 1669: Accurately description of tricuspid valve endocarditis.
- In 1646: Description of unusual "outgrowths" from autopsy of a patient with endocarditis; detected murmurs by placing a hand on patient's chest.
- In 1708: Description of unusual structures in entrance of aorta.
- In 1715: Description of abnormality in aortic valve and mitral valve.
- In 1749: Description of valvular lesions.
- In 1769: Link between infectious disease and endocarditis established; association with spleen observed.
- In 1784: Intracardiac abnormalities accurately drawn.
- In 1797: Relationship between rheumatism and heart disease established.
- In 1799: Inflammatory process associated with endocarditis described.
- In 1806: Described unusual structures in the heart as "vegetations," syphilitic virus as a causative agent of endocarditis, and theory of antiviral treatment of endocarditis.
- In 1809: Vegetations were described as not "outgrowths" or "buds" but particles adhering to the heart wall.
- In 1816: Invention of cylindrical stethoscope used to listen to heart murmurs; the link between venereal disease and endocarditis dismissed.
- In 1832: Laennec's observations observed.
- In 1835-40: Named endocardium and endocarditis; described symptoms; herbal tea and bloodletting described as treatment regimen; the link between acute rheumatoid arthritis and endocarditis established.
- In 1852: Consequences of embolization of vegetations throughout body described. Described cutaneous nodules (named "Osler's nodes" by Libman).
- In 1858-71: Examined fibrin vegetation associated with endocarditis by microscope; coined term "embolism;" discussed role of bacteria, vibrios, and micrococci in endocarditis.
- In 1861: Virchow's theory on emboli described.
- In 1862: Granulations or foreign elements in blood and valves described.
- In 1868-70: Described infected arterial blood as originating from the heart; proposed scarlet fever as a cause of endocarditis.
- In 1869: Established "parasites" on skin transported to the heart and attached to endocardium; named Mycosis endocarditis.
- In 1872: Microorganisms in vegetations of endocarditis are described.
- In 1878: All cases of endocarditis were infectious in origin.
- In 1878: Combined experimental physiology and infection to produce an animal model of endocarditis in rabbit; noted valve had to be damaged before bacteria grafted onto the valve.
- In 1878: Micrococci enter vessels that valves were fitted into; valves exposed to abnormal mechanical attacks over long period created favorable niche for bacterial colonization.
- In 1879: Virchow's student; employed early animal model of endocarditis.
- In 1879: Proposed etiology of endocarditis was based on infectious model and treatment should focus on eliminating "parasitic infection"
- In 1880: Working with Pasteur, proposed use of routine blood cultures.
- In 1881-86: Believed endocarditis could appear during various infections; noted translocation of respiratory pathogen from pulmonary lesion to valve through blood.
- In 1883: Believed microorganisms were result, not cause, of endocarditis.
- In 1884: Named disease "infective endocarditis".
- In 1886: Demonstrated various bacteria introduced to bloodstream could cause endocarditis on valve that had previous lesion.
- In 1885: Synthesized work of others relating to endocarditis.
- In 1899: Described streptococcal, staphylococcal, pneumococcal, and gonococcal endocarditis.
- In 1903: First described "endocarditis lenta".
- In 1909: Credited by Osler as first to observe cutaneous nodes (named "Osler's nodes" by Libman) in patients with endocarditis.
- In 1909: Analyzed 150 cases of endocarditis and published diagnostic criteria relating to signs and symptoms.
- In 1910: Described initial classification scheme to include "subacute endocarditis," with clinical signs/symptoms; absolute diagnosis required blood cultures.
- In 1981: Beth Israel criteria based on strict case definitions described.
- In 1994: New criteria utilizing specific echocardiographic findings.
- In 1995: Antibiotic treatment of adults with infective endocarditis caused by streptococci, enterococci, staphylococci, and HACEK microorganisms described.
- In 1996: Modified Duke Criteria to allow serologic diagnosis of Coxiella burnetii.
- In 1997: Guidelines for preventing bacterial endocarditis established.
- In 1997: Modifications to Duke criteria for clinical diagnosis of native valve and prosthetic valve endocarditis suggested: Analysis of 118 pathologically proven cases.
- In 1998: Guidelines for antibiotic treatment of streptococcal, enterococcal, and staphylococcal endocarditis established.
- In 1998: Antibiotic treatment of infective endocarditis due to viridans streptococci, enterococci, and other streptococci established; recommendations for surgical treatment of endocarditis.
- In 2000: Updated and modified Duke Criteria.
- In 2002: Duke Criteria to include a molecular diagnosis of causal agents.
- In 2001-3: Etiology of Bartonella spp., Tropheryma whipplei, and Coxiella burnetii in endocarditis described.
- Millar BC, Moore JE (2004). "Emerging issues in infective endocarditis". Emerg Infect Dis. 10 (6): 1110–6. doi:10.3201/eid1006.030848. PMC 3323180. PMID 15207065.
- Grinberg M, Solimene MC (2011). "Historical aspects of infective endocarditis". Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 57 (2): 228–33. doi:10.1590/s0104-42302011000200023. PMID 21537712.
- Contrepois, Alain (2012). "Towards a history of infective endocarditis". Medical History. 40 (1): 25–54. doi:10.1017/S0025727300060658. ISSN 0025-7273.
- Sordelli C, Fele N, Mocerino R, Weisz SH, Ascione L, Caso P; et al. (2019). "Infective Endocarditis: Echocardiographic Imaging and New Imaging Modalities". J Cardiovasc Echogr. 29 (4): 149–155. doi:10.4103/jcecho.jcecho_53_19. PMC 7011492 Check
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