Hyperparathyroidism medical therapy

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Hyperparathyroidism Microchapters


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Historical Perspective




Differentiating Hyperparathyroidism from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


History and Symptoms

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Medical Therapy


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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1];Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Anmol Pitliya, M.B.B.S. M.D.[2]


Surgical therapy is preferred over medical therapy in hyperparathyroidism. However medical therapy is considered in a few circumstances. Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who do not undergo parathyroidectomy should be monitored for the potential progression of disease. Monitoring includes serum calcium, skeletal monitoring, and renal monitoring. Medical management of primary hyperparathyroidism includes nutritional supplements and pharmacotherapy. Nutritional supplements includes elemental calcium supplements and vitamin D analogs. Pharmacotherapy includes bisphosphonates, calcimimetics, and estrogen receptor-targeted therapy. Medical management of secondary hyperparathyroidism includes calcimimetics, vitamin D analogues, and phosphate binders/phosphate restriction. Medical management of tertiary hyperparathyroidism includes calcimimetics.

Medical Therapy

Medical therapy for hyperparathyroidism should be considered in the following circumstances:[1]

  • Patients with hyperparathyroidism not meeting the guidelines for surgery.
  • Patients with hyperparathyroidism having contraindications to surgery.
  • Patient with hyperparathyroidism who have previous unsuccessful neck exploration.
  • Patient with hyperparathyroidism who have not been cured by surgery.
  • Patient with hyperparathyroidism refuses surgery.

Medical Management


  1. Khan AA (2013). "Medical management of primary hyperparathyroidism". J Clin Densitom. 16 (1): 60–3. doi:10.1016/j.jocd.2012.11.010. PMID 23374743.
  2. Marcocci C, Bollerslev J, Khan AA, Shoback DM (2014). "Medical management of primary hyperparathyroidism: proceedings of the fourth International Workshop on the Management of Asymptomatic Primary Hyperparathyroidism". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 99 (10): 3607–18. doi:10.1210/jc.2014-1417. PMID 25162668.
  3. Jorde R, Szumlas K, Haug E, Sundsfjord J (2002). "The effects of calcium supplementation to patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and a low calcium intake". Eur J Nutr. 41 (6): 258–63. doi:10.1007/s00394-002-0383-1. PMID 12474069.
  4. Ross AC, Manson JE, Abrams SA, Aloia JF, Brannon PM, Clinton SK; et al. (2011). "The 2011 report on dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: what clinicians need to know". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 96 (1): 53–8. doi:10.1210/jc.2010-2704. PMC 3046611. PMID 21118827.
  5. Chow CC, Chan WB, Li JK, Chan NN, Chan MH, Ko GT; et al. (2003). "Oral alendronate increases bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with primary hyperparathyroidism". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 88 (2): 581–7. doi:10.1210/jc.2002-020890. PMID 12574184.
  6. Khan AA, Bilezikian JP, Kung AW, Ahmed MM, Dubois SJ, Ho AY; et al. (2004). "Alendronate in primary hyperparathyroidism: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 89 (7): 3319–25. doi:10.1210/jc.2003-030908. PMID 15240609.
  7. Peacock M, Bilezikian JP, Klassen PS, Guo MD, Turner SA, Shoback D (2005). "Cinacalcet hydrochloride maintains long-term normocalcemia in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 90 (1): 135–41. doi:10.1210/jc.2004-0842. PMID 15522938.
  8. Luque-Fernández I, García-Martín A, Luque-Pazos A (2013). "Experience with cinacalcet in primary hyperparathyroidism: results after 1 year of treatment". Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 4 (3): 77–81. doi:10.1177/2042018813482344. PMC 3666442. PMID 23730501.
  9. Faggiano A, Di Somma C, Ramundo V, Severino R, Vuolo L, Coppola A; et al. (2011). "Cinacalcet hydrochloride in combination with alendronate normalizes hypercalcemia and improves bone mineral density in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism". Endocrine. 39 (3): 283–7. doi:10.1007/s12020-011-9459-0. PMID 21445714.
  10. Wetmore JB, Quarles LD (2009). "Calcimimetics or vitamin D analogs for suppressing parathyroid hormone in end-stage renal disease: time for a paradigm shift?". Nat Clin Pract Nephrol. 5 (1): 24–33. doi:10.1038/ncpneph0977. PMC 3924719. PMID 18957950.
  11. Block GA, Zeig S, Sugihara J, Chertow GM, Chi EM, Turner SA; et al. (2008). "Combined therapy with cinacalcet and low doses of vitamin D sterols in patients with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism". Nephrol Dial Transplant. 23 (7): 2311–8. doi:10.1093/ndt/gfn026. PMID 18310602.
  12. Chertow GM, Blumenthal S, Turner S, Roppolo M, Stern L, Chi EM; et al. (2006). "Cinacalcet hydrochloride (Sensipar) in hemodialysis patients on active vitamin D derivatives with controlled PTH and elevated calcium x phosphate". Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 1 (2): 305–12. doi:10.2215/CJN.00870805. PMID 17699221.
  13. Strippoli GF, Palmer S, Tong A, Elder G, Messa P, Craig JC (2006). "Meta-analysis of biochemical and patient-level effects of calcimimetic therapy". Am J Kidney Dis. 47 (5): 715–26. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2006.01.015. PMID 16632010.
  14. Moe SM, Chertow GM, Coburn JW, Quarles LD, Goodman WG, Block GA; et al. (2005). "Achieving NKF-K/DOQI bone metabolism and disease treatment goals with cinacalcet HCl". Kidney Int. 67 (2): 760–71. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.67139.x. PMID 15673327.
  15. Dulfer RR, Franssen GJH, Hesselink DA, Hoorn EJ, van Eijck CHJ, van Ginhoven TM (2017). "Systematic review of surgical and medical treatment for tertiary hyperparathyroidism". Br J Surg. 104 (7): 804–813. doi:10.1002/bjs.10554. PMID 28518414.

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