Male oral contraceptive
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A male oral contraceptive is not medically available to the public, although several forms are in various stages of research and development.
- In 1980, a test was successfully performed on male rats using leaves from the neem tree.
- In 1995, researchers isolated compounds from a Chinese plant called Tripterygium wilfordii.
- In 2002, researchers fed extracts from the seeds of papaya fruits (Carica papaya) to monkeys. Subsequently, the monkeys had no sperm in their ejaculate. 
- In 2002, tests were performed on male rats using oleanolic acid, extracted from Eugenia jambolana, a tree in the southern part of Africa. The tests demonstrated that the chemical was found to reversibly lower the rats' sperm motility without affecting the sperm count.
- Pills made from gossypol, a compound found in cotton seeds, have been abandoned as a potential male contraceptive because the compound was proven to cause permanent infertility.
- Calcium channel blockers such as nifedipine may cause reversible infertility by altering the lipid metabolism of sperm so that they are not able to fertilize an egg.
Research on sperm
- Dr. David Claphamhas performed research on sperm-specific ion exchange channels needed for hyperactivation.
- Male antifertility activity of Azadirachta Indica ...[J Postgrad Med. 1980] - PubMed Result
- Recent progress in research on Tripterygium: a mal...[Contraception. 1995] - PubMed Result
- Chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds induces ...[Asian J Androl. 2002] - PubMed Result
- The effect of oleanolic acid on sperm motion chara...[Lab Anim. 2002] - PubMed Result
- Gossypol: a contraceptive for men. [Contraception. 2002] - PubMed Result
- Pregnancy following discontinuation of a calcium c...[Hum Reprod. 1995] - PubMed Result
- Novel role for a sterol response element binding p...[Mol Cell Biol. 2004] - PubMed Result
- CatSper1 required for evoked Ca2+ entry and contro...[Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003] - PubMed Result
- Purification and characterization of protein D/E, ...[Prep Biochem Biotechnol. 1997] - PubMed Result
- “An oral regimen of cyproterone acetate and testosterone undecanoate for spermatogenic suppression in men” by MC Meriggiola et al. in Fertility and Sterility, November 1997.
- “Inhibition of spermatogenesis in men using various combinations of oral progestagens and percutaneous or oral androgens” by JF Guerin and J Rollet in the International Journal of Andrology, June 1988.
- “Recent progress in research on Tripterygium: a male antifertility plant” by QS Zhen [sic] et al. in Contraception, February 1995.
- “Chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds induces long-term reversible azoospermia in langur monkey” by NK Lohiya et al. in the Asian Journal of Andrology, March 2002.
- “The effect of oleanolic acid on sperm motion characteristics and fertility of male Wistar rats” by MC Mdhluli and G van der Horst in Laboratory Animal, October 2002.
- “Male antifertility activity of Azadirachta indica in mice” by VY Deshpande et al. in the Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, July 1980.
- “Gossypol: a contraceptive for men” by E Coutinho in Contraception, April 2002.
- “Pregnancy following discontinuation of a calcium channel blocker in the male partner” by A Hershlag et al. in Human Reproduction, March 1995.
- “Long-term non-hormonal male contraception in mice using N-butyldeoxynojirimycin” by CM Walden et al. in Human Reproduction, May 2006.
- “AF-2364 [1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carbohydrazide is a potential male contraceptive: a review of recent data”] by CY Cheng et al. in Contraception, October 2005.
- “Novel role for a sterol response element binding protein in directing spermatogenic cell-specific gene expression” by H Wang et al. in Molecular and Cellular Biology, December 2004.
- “CatSper1 required for evoked Ca2+ entry and control of flagellar function in sperm” by AE Carlson et al. in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, December 2003.
- “Purification and characterization of protein D/E, a putative sperm-binding protein involved in fertilization” by JC Hall and CE Tubbs in Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology, November 1997.