Odynophagia laboratory findings

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Odynophagia Microchapters


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Historical Perspective




Differentiating Odynophagia from other Conditions

Epidemiology and Demographics


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Laboratory Findings


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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sunny Kumar MD [2]


Patient with odynophagia will need blood chemistry and cytology according to the supporting history and examination to rule out causes of pain in swallowing.

Laboratory Findings

Following are relevant laboratory investigations to approach a case of odynophagia:[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]

Base Lines:
Specific tests ;
Cardiovascular  Mediastinitis Fluid tap and C & S
Chemical / poisoning BotulismChemical burns Toxicology and Botulism ELISA
Dermatologic Scleroderma Antitopoisomerase-1 or Anti-Scl-70 antibodies
Drug Side Effect ibandronateStevens-Johnson Syndrome ANA profile and drug levels
Ear Nose Throat Cricopharyngeal spasmEpiglottitisGlossitisGoiterLaryngitis,  Oral ulcers Stomatitis,  HerpanginaRetropharyngeal abscess Xerostomia Blood culture, viral assay, throat culture, TSH
Endocrine Diabetic neuropathyHyperthyroidismHypothyroidismRiedel thyroiditis HBA1C, TSH, Blood cultures
Gastroenterologic EsophagitisGastritis, Intramural pseudodiverticulosis, Schatzki ringMyoneurogastrointestinal encephalopathy syndromeCrohn's diseaseEosinophilic esophagitis Electrolytes, ANA profile, stool H.pylori test
Genetic Opitz-Frias syndrome Genetic testing PCR
Hematologic AgranulocytosisLymphadenopathy Vitamin B12, RBC folate, Bone marrow microscopy
Infectious Disease AbscessesAcute pharyngitisAdenoiditisCandidiasisChagas DiseaseCytomegalovirusDiphtheriaEsophageal moniliasisFluHerpanginaHerpes simplex virus (HSV)

Herpes stomatitisHIV/AIDSMononucleosisMumpsOral candidiasisParacoccidioidomycosisPharyngitisPoliomyelitisRabiesReflux esophagitisRespiratory tract infections,

 Retropharyngeal abscessScarlet FeverTetanusTonsillar abscessTyphoid fever

Viral markers, Blood C & S,

Throat and sputum DR & CS, fungal markers

Musculoskeletal / Ortho Schatzki ringDermatomyositisMyasthenia Gravis anti–acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody (Ab)

Bone marrow microscopy, CK, Aldolase,

Mi-2 (nuclear helicase protein) Antibody

Neurologic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)Bulbar palsyCentral hypoglossal nerve paralysis

Central vagal nucleus lesionCerebrovascular accidentGuillain-Barre syndromeHuntington's chorea

Multiple SclerosisMyoneurogastrointestinal encephalopathy syndromeNeuroferritinopathyPeripheral neuropathyPolyradiculitisDiabetic neuropathyPoliomyelitis

anti-ganglioside antibodies, anti GM1 antibodies and Anti-GQ1b,Stool culture for campylobacter jejuni, trinucleotide repeat sequence "CAG", EMG, ANA
Nutritional / Metabolic Gaucher's diseasePlummer-Vinson Syndrome Genetic testing, vitamin B12, RBC, folate, Bone marrow microscopy
Oncologic  Paraneoplastic syndrome Hormone levels of calcium, vitamin D, Histamine, IL-1
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Allergic swellingAmyloidosisBehcet's SyndromeCREST syndrome , Crohn's diseaseDermatomyositisEosinophilic esophagitis

Esophageal sarcoidosisGraft versus host reactionInclusion body myositisMyasthenia GravisParkinson's DiseaseRiedel thyroiditis,

 Rheumatoid ArthritisSclerodermaSystemic Lupus ErythematosusSystemic sclerosisXerostomia

ANA profile, Rheumatoid factor, Bone marrow biopsy, calcium level, vitamin D level, RNA polymerase types II and III ,RNP, Scl-70 , SS-A , SS-B
Sexual Oral sex Oral swab culture
Miscellaneous AlcoholismAspiration of foreign body blood culture, blood alcohol levels


  1. Jalisi S, Jamal BT, Grillone GA (2017). "Surgical Management of Long-standing Eagle's Syndrome". Ann Maxillofac Surg. 7 (2): 232–236. doi:10.4103/ams.ams_53_17. PMC 5717900. PMID 29264291.
  2. Jalisi S, Sakai O, Jamal BT, Mardirossian V (2017). "Features of Prevertebral Disease in Patients Presenting to a Head and Neck Surgery Clinic with Neck Pain". Ann Maxillofac Surg. 7 (2): 228–231. doi:10.4103/ams.ams_54_17. PMC 5717899. PMID 29264290.
  3. Marques S, Carmo J, Pinto D, Bispo M, Ramos S, Chagas C (2017). "Cytomegalovirus Disease of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract: A 10-Year Retrospective Study". GE Port J Gastroenterol. 24 (6): 262–268. doi:10.1159/000479232. PMC 5731150. PMID 29255766.
  4. Rama-López J, Tomás-Fernandez M, García-Garza C, Martínez-Madrigal M (2018). "Pharyngeal perforation after anterior cervical spine surgery treated by transoral endoscopic surgery". Head Neck. 40 (2): E13–E16. doi:10.1002/hed.25030. PMID 29206327.
  5. Kato MG, Isaac MJ, Gillespie MB, O'Rourke AK (2018). "The Incidence and Characterization of Globus Sensation, Dysphagia, and Odynophagia Following Surgery for Obstructive Sleep Apnea". J Clin Sleep Med. 14 (1): 127–132. doi:10.5664/jcsm.6898. PMC 5734881. PMID 29198289.
  6. Teixeira C, Alves AL, Cremers I (2018). "Esophageal lichen planus: a rare case". Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 110 (1): 67–68. doi:10.17235/reed.2017.5332/2017. PMID 29168645.
  7. Chen L, Lai Y, Dong L, Kang S, Chen X (2017). "Polysaccharides from Citrus grandis L. Osbeck suppress inflammation and relieve chronic pharyngitis". Microb Pathog. 113: 365–371. doi:10.1016/j.micpath.2017.11.018. PMID 29146495.
  8. Kim YJ, Park JY, Choi KY, Moon BJ, Lee JK (2017). "Case reports about an overlooked cause of neck pain: calcific tendinitis of the longus colli: Case reports". Medicine (Baltimore). 96 (46): e8343. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000008343. PMC 5704790. PMID 29145245.
  9. Alamoudi U, Al-Sayed AA, AlSallumi Y, Rigby MH, Taylor SM, Hart RD; et al. (2017). "Acute calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle masquerading as a retropharyngeal abscess: A case report and review of the literature". Int J Surg Case Rep. 41: 343–346. doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2017.10.063. PMC 5686463. PMID 29145108.
  10. Sopeña B, Limeres J, García-Caballero L, Diniz-Freitas M, Seoane J, Diz P (2018). "A Dramatic Case of Odynophagia". Dysphagia. 33 (1): 133–135. doi:10.1007/s00455-017-9861-8. PMID 29128948.
  11. Fukuda S, Watanabe N, Domen T, Ishioka M, Sawaguchi M, Ohba R; et al. (2018). "A case of esophageal actinomycosis with a unique morphology presenting as a refractory ulcer". Clin J Gastroenterol. 11 (1): 38–41. doi:10.1007/s12328-017-0797-1. PMID 29124648.
  12. Chi TH, Hung CC, Chen RF, Yuan CH, Chen JC (2017). "Spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysema: A case report". Niger J Clin Pract. 20 (9): 1213–1215. doi:10.4103/njcp.njcp_3_16. PMID 29072250.
  13. Jovov B, Reed CC, Shaheen NJ, Pruitt A, Ferrell K, Orlando GS; et al. (2017). "Fragments of e-Cadherin as Biomarkers of Non-erosive Reflux Disease". Dig Dis Sci. doi:10.1007/s10620-017-4815-4. PMID 29071486.
  14. Althuwaini S, Bamehriz F, Aldohayan A, Alshammari W, Alhaidar S, Alotaibi M; et al. (2017). "Prevalence and Predictors of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy". Obes Surg. doi:10.1007/s11695-017-2971-4. PMID 29043549.

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