Odynophagia risk factors

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Odynophagia Microchapters


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Differentiating Odynophagia from other Conditions

Epidemiology and Demographics


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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief:


There are no established risk factors for odynophagia. However individual conditions which produce pain on swallowing may have independent risk factors.

Risk Factors

There are no established risk factors for odynophagia. However individual conditions which produce pain on swallowing may have independent risk factors.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

Common Conditions & Their Risk Factors

Upper respiratory tract infections:


Foreign body




  1. Dellon ES (2014). "Epidemiology of eosinophilic esophagitis". Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 43 (2): 201–18. doi:10.1016/j.gtc.2014.02.002. PMC 4019938. PMID 24813510.
  2. Soon IS, Butzner JD, Kaplan GG, deBruyn JC (2013). "Incidence and prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in children". J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 57 (1): 72–80. doi:10.1097/MPG.0b013e318291fee2. PMID 23539047.
  3. Sperry SL, Crockett SD, Miller CB, Shaheen NJ, Dellon ES (2011). "Esophageal foreign-body impactions: epidemiology, time trends, and the impact of the increasing prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis". Gastrointest. Endosc. 74 (5): 985–91. doi:10.1016/j.gie.2011.06.029. PMC 3951006. PMID 21889135.
  4. Cianferoni A, Spergel JM (2015). "Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Gastroenteritis". Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 15 (9): 58. doi:10.1007/s11882-015-0558-5. PMID 26233430.
  5. Furuta GT, Katzka DA (2015). "Eosinophilic Esophagitis". N. Engl. J. Med. 373 (17): 1640–8. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1502863. PMC 4905697. PMID 26488694.
  6. Kocsis D, Tulassay Z, Juhász M (2015). "[Dietary and pharmacological aspects of eosinophilic esophagitis]". Orv Hetil (in Hungarian). 156 (23): 927–32. doi:10.1556/650.2015.30164. PMID 26027600.
  7. El-Serag HB, Sweet S, Winchester CC, Dent J (2014). "Update on the epidemiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review". Gut. 63 (6): 871–80. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2012-304269. PMC 4046948. PMID 23853213.
  8. Jarosz M, Taraszewska A (2014). "Risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease: the role of diet". Prz Gastroenterol. 9 (5): 297–301. doi:10.5114/pg.2014.46166. PMC 4223119. PMID 25396005.
  9. Wong A, Fitzgerald RC. Epidemiologic risk factors for Barrett's esophagus and associated adenocarcinoma. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Jan;3(1):1-10. PMID 15645398
  10. Ye W, Held M, Lagergren J, Engstrand L, Blot WJ, McLaughlin JK, Nyren O. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric atrophy: risk of adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus and adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 Mar 3;96(5):388-96. PMID 14996860
  11. Nakajima S, Hattori T. Oesophageal adenocarcinoma or gastric cancer with or without eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in chronic atrophic gastritis patients: a hypothetical opinion from a systematic review. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Jul;20 Suppl 1:54-61. PMID 15298606
  12. NCI Prevention: Dietary Factors, based on Chainani-Wu N. Diet and oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal cancer. Nutr Cancer 2002;44:104-26. PMID 12734057.

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