Oliguria causes

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Oliguria Microchapters


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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Mugilan Poongkunran M.B.B.S [2]


Oliguria is the low output of urine below 300-500ml/day. The decreased output of urine may be causes by dehydration, renal failure, hypovolemic shock, hyperosmolar nonketotic coma, urinary retention, DKA, preeclampsia, and urinary tract infections among other conditions.


Life Threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Accelerated hypertension, acute systemic inflammation after myocardial infarction, aneurysmal rupture, aortic valve ring and critical aortic stenosis, atheroemboli, bleeding, bradyarrhythmias , capillary leak, cardiogenic shock, cholesterol embolism, complete heart block, congenital heart disease, dilated cardiomyopathies, heart failure, heat stroke, hypovolemic shock, malignant hypertension, myocardial stunning, cardiac tamponade, pre-eclampsia, renal artery stenosis, severe constrictive pericarditis, superior mesenteric artery occlusion, vasculitis
Chemical/Poisoning Camphor, carbon monoxide
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic Anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions, erythroderma, sweating
Drug Side Effect ACE inhibitors, Aldesleukin, amatoxins, aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, analgesic nephropathy, anthracyclines, arsenic trioxide, bacitracin, bendamustine, bleomycin, capecitabine, capreomycin, carbon tetrachloride, carboplatin, carmustine, cidofovir, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, cytarabine, deferasirox, etoposide, exenatide, fluconazole, fludarabine, cladribine, gallium, gemcitabine, gyromitrin, hetastarch, hydroxyurea, ifosfamide, immune globulin intravenous injection, irinotecan, lenalidomide, Lincomycin Hydrochloride, lomustine, malignant hyperpyrexia following anesthesia, mannitol, melphalan, methotrexate, micafungin, mithramycin, Nabilone, nitrosourea compounds, NSAIDs , orellanine, oxaliplatin, para-amino salicylic acid, pemetrexed, pentamidine, pentostatin, pramipexole, polymyxin B, rifampicin, sertraline, Streptozocin, Sulfasalazine, sulfinpyrazone, sulphonamide crystalluria Cacluli, synthetic cannabinoids, tacrolimus, taxanes, telavancin, temozolomide, tenofovir, topotecan, valacyclovir, vancomycin, vinca alkaloids
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Acute pancreatitis, addisonian crisis, diabetic nephropathy, hypercalciuria, hyperosmolar non-ketotic diabetic coma, hypoaldosteronism, myxedema coma, SIADH
Environmental Burns, heat stroke, insect bites, snake bite (Viperidae)
Gastroenterologic Bowel strangulation, colorectal cancer, hepatic vein thrombosis, hepatorenal syndrome, intestinal obstruction, intususception of intestine, acute pancreatitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, third space losses, upper or lower gastrointestinal bleeding
Genetic Prune belly syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, transient renal dysfunction of the newborn
Hematologic Disseminated intravascular coagulation, expanding hematoma, mismatched blood transfusion, myelomatosis, myoglobinuria, polycythemia, porphyria, renal artery thrombosis, renal vein thrombosis, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, transfusion reactions
Iatrogenic Diarrhea, external drainage, malignant hyperpyrexia following anesthesia, mismatched blood transfusion, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, radiotherapy, sweating, systemic inflammatory response syndrome , vomiting
Infectious Disease Diphtheria, endometriosis, endotoxic shock, enteritis, epidemic dropsy, hantavirus, human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis, lassa fever, leptospirosis, malignant malaria, mycobacterium tuberculosis, neisseria gonorrhoea, post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, schistosoma haematobium, septic shock, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, toxic shock syndrome
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic Rhabdomyolysis, cervical spine injury, spinal cord compression, crush syndrome, fractures, massive bleeding, polytrauma
Neurologic Eclampsia, intraventricular hemorrhage, neurogenic bladder, neurogenic shock after central nervous system or spinal cord injury, prolonged convulsions, spinal cord compression
Nutritional/Metabolic Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency, bulimia, cholesterol embolism
Obstetric/Gynecologic Cervical cancer, endometriosis, hydrometrocolpos, hyperemesis gravidarum, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, perinatal asphyxia, postpartum bleeding, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy toxemia, puerperal shock, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome
Oncologic Benign prostatic hyperplasia, bladder cancer, leukaemia, myelomatosis, pelvic tumour, prostate cancer, tumor lysis syndrome
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity Crush syndrome, drug overdose, heavy metal poisoning , heme pigments, myoglobinuria, porphyria, radiocontrast media, rhabdomyolysis, tumor lysis syndrome.
Psychiatric Bulimia
Pulmonary Alport syndrome, massive pulmonary embolism, respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory losses , severe pulmonary hypertension, tension pneumothorax
Renal/Electrolyte Acute cortical necrosis, acute interstitial nephritis, acute on chronic renal failure , acute pyelonephritis, acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis, addisonian crisis, alport syndrome, analgesic nephropathy, burns, chronic renal failure, end stage kidney disease, glomerulonephritis, hepatic vein thrombosis, hepatorenal syndrome, hydronephrosis, hypoaldosteronism, nephritic syndrome, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, nephrotic syndrome, Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, renal papillary necrosis, renal vein thrombosis, salt-wasting nephropathies, sulphonamide crystalluria, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions, antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, mismatched blood transfusion, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome , transfusion reactions, transplant rejection, vasculitis
Sexual Benign prostatic hyperplasia, hydrometrocolpos
Trauma Acute blood loss, crush syndrome, fractures, multiple traumatic injuries, neurogenic bladder, neurogenic shock after central nervous system or spinal cord injury, ruptured hematoma, shock, upper or lower gastrointestinal bleeding
Urologic Benign prostatic hyperplasia, bladder cancer, bladder outlet obstruction, hydronephrosis, kidney stone, nephrotic syndrome, obstruction of the urinary tract, pelvic tumor, prostate cancer, schistosoma haematobium, sulphonamide crystalluria, ureterocele, urethral catheterization, urethral stricture, urethral trauma
Miscellaneous Marathon running, post-resustication syndrome, puerperal shock, radiotherapy, surgery complication

Causes in Alphabetical Order


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