Orthopnea causes

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Orthopnea Microchapters


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Differentiating Orthopnea from other Diseases

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Mugilan Poongkunran M.B.B.S [2]


Orthopnea is often observed among patients with left heart failure. Orthopnea can also occur in patients suffering from asthma and chronic bronchitis, as well as those with sleep apnea or panic disorder.


Life Threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Acute cardiac allograft rejection, aortic regurgitation, atrial fibrillation, arteriovenous fistula, Cardiac amyloidosis, cardiac aneurysm, cardiac sarcoidosis, cardiac tumors, cor pulmonale, diabetic heart disease, Eisenmenger syndrome, endomyocardial fibrosis, Fallot tetralogy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, idiopathic restrictive cardiomyopathy, stress cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, left heart failure, mitral regurgitation, mitral valve stenosis, multifocal atrial tachycardia, myocardial infarction, patent ductus arteriosus, pericardial effusion, pericardiocentesis, peripartum cardiomyopathy, rupture of the papillary muscles, severe hypertension, STEMI, stress cardiomyopathy, tuberculous pericarditis
Chemical/Poisoning Beryllium, cadmium, carbon monoxide toxicity, coal worker pneumoconiosis, cobalt, fume inhalation, lead, mercury, nitrogen dioxide, organophosphates, selenium, silica, snake bite, sulfur dioxide
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic Dermatomyositis, mixed connective tissue disease
Drug Side Effect Amphetamines, anthracyclines, bleomycin, calcium channel blockers, carmustine, carnitine, cetuximab, chloroquine, clozapine, cyanides, cyclophosphamide, dasatinib, didanosine, gemcitabine, gemeprost, glatiramer acetate, glutaraldehyde, mitomycin C, nifedipine, nitrofurantoin, NSAIDs, paricalcitol, pentostatin, phenothiazines, protamine sulfate, regadenoson, rifampicin, ticagrelor, trastuzumab, zalcitabine, zidovudine
Ear Nose Throat Tracheolaryngobronchitis,
Endocrine Cushing's disease, diabetes, goiter, hyperthyroidism, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hypothyroidism, liquorice, mineralocorticoids, pheochromocytoma, thyrotoxic myopathy
Environmental Beryllium, cadmium, carbon monoxide toxicity, coal worker pneumoconiosis, cobalt, fume inhalation, lead, liquorice, malnutrition, mercury, morbid obesity, organophosphates, silica, smoke inhalation, snake bite, sulfur dioxide
Gastroenterologic Aspiration of stomach contents, cirrhosis, pancreatitis, portopulmonary hypertension
Genetic Bulbospinal muscular atrophy, congenital impairment of lymphatic system, cystic fibrosis, Foster Kennedy syndrome, Friedreich's ataxia, glycogen storage disease type II, GM2 gangliosidosis, hereditary hemochromatosis, hereditary spastic paraplegia, hereditary spinal muscular atrophy, inclusion body myositis, langerhans cell histiocytosis, late-onset Tay-Sachs disease, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, lysosomal acid maltase deficiency, Pompe's disease, myotonic dystrophy, patent ductus arteriosus, tetralogy of Fallot
Hematologic Congenital impairment of lymphatic system, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, hemorrhagic shock, hereditary hemochromatosis, langerhans cell histiocytosis, lymphangiomyomatosis, septic shock, Severe anemia, transfusion reactions, Wegener granulomatosis
Iatrogenic Acute cardiac allograft rejection, anaphylaxis, aspiration of stomach contents, insulin treatment, IV fluid overload, neck surgery, pericardiocentesis, pneumothorax, radiation brainstem injury, radiation myelopathy, transfusion reactions
Infectious Disease Chagas disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, herpes zoster, HIV, human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis, Lyme disease, pleural effusion, pneumocystis jiroveci, pneumonia, post polio syndrome, post-viral neuropathy, septic shock, toxocariasis, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, tuberculous pericarditis, viral cardiomyopathy, yersinia pestis
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic Cervical spondylosis with compressive radiculopathy and myelopathy, dermatomyositis, Lambert-Eaton Syndrome, inclusion body myositis, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, mixed connective tissue disease, myasthenia gravis, myotonic dystrophy, polymyositis post polio syndrome, progressive muscular atrophy, rheumatoid arthritis
Neurologic Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis, bulbospinal muscular atrophy, central sleep apnea, cervical spondylosis with compressive radiculopathy and myelopathy, Lambert-Eaton syndrome, Foster Kennedy syndrome, Friedreich's ataxia, GM2 gangliosidosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, hereditary spastic paraplegia, hereditary spinal muscular atrophy, intraspinal tumors, late-onset Tay-Sachs disease, monomelic (benign focal) amyotrophy, motor neuron syndromes in cancers, multifocal motor neuropathy, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, myotonic dystrophy, neurogenic pulmonary oedema, phrenic nerve injury due to stretching or cooling during cardiac surgery, Post-polio progressive muscular atrophy, post-viral neuropathy, preeclampsia, primary lateral sclerosis, progressive bulbar palsy, progressive muscular atrophy, radiation brainstem injury/radiation myelopathy, stroke
Nutritional/Metabolic Glycogen storage disease type II, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hypoproteinemia, lysosomal acid maltase deficiency, Pompe's disease, wet beri-beri,
Obstetric/Gynecologic Eclampsia, peripartum cardiomyopathy, preeclampsia, pregnancy, premenstrual syndrome
Oncologic Bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiac tumors, intraspinal tumors, malignant pleural mesothelioma, motor neuron syndromes in cancers
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity Bleomycin, cocaine, cyanides, mineralocorticoids, narcotic overdose
Psychiatric Panic attack, stress cardiomyopathy
Pulmonary Acute respiratory distress syndrome, altitude sickness, asthma, bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis obliterans, bronchitis, bronchogenic carcinoma, bronchogenic cyst, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, bronchospasm, central sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Churg-Strauss syndrome, cor pulmonale, CREST syndrome, cystic fibrosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, Eisenmenger syndrome, empyema, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, fibrosing alveolitis, cryptogenic, goodpasture syndrome, idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis, interstitial lung disease , malignant pleural mesothelioma, near-drowning, pleural effusion, pneumonia, pneumothorax, polyarteritis nodosa, portopulmonary hypertension, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, pulmonic stenosis, respiratory failure, sclerosing mediastinitis, systemic lupus erythematosus(shrinking lung syndrome), smoke inhalation, tracheolaryngobronchitis, transient tachypnea of the newborn, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia
Renal/Electrolyte Nephritic syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, renal artery stenosis, renal failure, Uremia
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Acute cardiac allograft rejection, anaphylaxis, asthma, cardiac sarcoidosis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, CREST syndrome, cytokine release syndrome, dermatomyositis, Lambert-Eaton Syndrome, Goodpasture syndrome, mixed connective tissue disease, myasthenia gravis, polyarteritis nodosa, polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, sclerosing mediastinitis, systemic lupus erythematosus(shrinking lung syndrome), systemic sclerosis, Wegener granulomatosis
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Blunt neck trauma, head injury, hemorrhagic shock, neck surgery, rib fracture
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Altitude sickness, amyloid cardiomyopathy, heavy alcohol intake, malnutrition, morbid obesity, near-drowning

Causes by Organ System developed by WikiDoc.org, Copyleft 2013

Causes in Alphabetical Order


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