Otitis media pathophysiology
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The pathogenesis of otitis media is directly connected to the pathogen responsible for nasopharyngitis. This includes infectious causes, such as viral upper respiratory infection, as well as bacterial infection from Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Mucus in the middle ear causes congestion that results in dysfunction of the eustachian tube. Pressure regulation in the inner ear is altered, causing effusion of fluid into the tympanic cavity containing the pathogen of nasopharyngitis. Otitis media results from the inflammatory response to the infection. Otitis media is transmitted through respiratory droplets through saliva or mucus, as well as direct physical contact with a contaminated individual or physical surface. Otitis media is often associated with other upper respiratory conditions caused by the nasopharynx pathogen, as well as allergic conditions such as allergic rhinitis. There is evidence of genetic predisposition to otitis media, with statistically significant evidence that it has high heritability. The following genes have been identified as having having potential pathogenic qualities for otitis media: CAPN14, GALNT14, BPIFA3, BPIFA1, BMP5, GALNT13, NELL1, TGFB3. Up-regulation of the genes correlated to otitis media pathogenesis contribute to individual susecptibility to the disease.
- Otitis media develops as a result of nasopharanx inflammation as a result of infections, such as viral upper respiratory infection and strep throat.
- Nasopharyngitis is caused by the inhalation of respiratory droplets containing viral infection, usually rhinovirus or similar upper respiratory infection causing viruses.
- The viruses penetrate through the epithelial cells in respiratory mucosa.
- The virus infiltrates histiocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and neutrophils white blood cells.
- Inflammation is caused by the up-regulated production of cytokines, localized in the nasopharynx, evidenced by nasal secretions of proteins and immunoglobin.
- Bacterial infections, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus can also result in nasopharyngitis.
- Nasopharyngitis results in eustachian tube dysfunction due to congestion from mucus production as a result of infection.
- The fluid may contain the viral or bacterial pathogens for nasopharyngitis, infecting the middle ear.
- Otitis media results from the inflammatory response to the middle ear infection.
- Otitis media is transmitted through respiratory droplets through saliva or mucus, as well as direct physical contact with a contaminated individual or physical surface.
- There is evidence of genetic predisposition to otitis media, with statistically significant evidence that it has high heritability.
- Hereditary factors comprising 45-75% of risk factors for otitis media, as revealed by heritability studies involving twins and triplets.
- The following genes have been identified as having having potential pathogenic qualities for otitis media:
- Up-regulation of the genes correlated to otitis media pathogenesis contribute to individual susceptibility to the disease.
- Otitis media is often associated with other upper respiratory conditions caused by the nasopharynx pathogen.
- Associated conditions are also allergies-related, such as allergic rhinitis.
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