Pre-eclampsia pathophysiology

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sara Zand, M.D.[2] Ogheneochuko Ajari, MB.BS, MS [3]


Preeclampsia may be the result of placental factors in maternal circulation leading to endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and proteinuria. Increased levels of an angiogenic factor named fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 in the placenta is correlated with endothelial dysfunction. In villous trophoblast of preeclamptic women, apoptosis was considered. Following uteroplacental ischemia, and invasion spiral arteries by trophoblasts, releasing some angiogenic factors causes other organ involvement. Incomplete penetration in recessive or dominant genes was noticed in pathogenesis of preeclampsia.



  1. Johansen, M; Redman, C.W.G; Wilkins, T; Sargent, I.L (1999). "Trophoblast Deportation in Human Pregnancy—its Relevance for Pre-eclampsia". Placenta. 20 (7): 531–539. doi:10.1053/plac.1999.0422. ISSN 0143-4004.
  2. Dekker, Gustaaf A.; Sibai, Baha M. (1998). "Etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia: Current concepts". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 179 (5): 1359–1375. doi:10.1016/S0002-9378(98)70160-7. ISSN 0002-9378.
  3. Espinoza, J. (2012). "Uteroplacental ischemia in early- and late-onset pre-eclampsia: a role for the fetus?". Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology. 40 (4): 373–382. doi:10.1002/uog.12280. ISSN 0960-7692.
  4. Crocker, Ian P.; Cooper, Suzanne; Ong, Stephen C.; Baker, Philip N. (2003). "Differences in Apoptotic Susceptibility of Cytotrophoblasts and Syncytiotrophoblasts in Normal Pregnancy to Those Complicated with Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction". The American Journal of Pathology. 162 (2): 637–643. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)63857-6. ISSN 0002-9440.
  5. Levine, Richard J.; Maynard, Sharon E.; Qian, Cong; Lim, Kee-Hak; England, Lucinda J.; Yu, Kai F.; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Thadhani, Ravi; Sachs, Benjamin P.; Epstein, Franklin H.; Sibai, Baha M.; Sukhatme, Vikas P.; Karumanchi, S. Ananth (2004). "Circulating Angiogenic Factors and the Risk of Preeclampsia". New England Journal of Medicine. 350 (7): 672–683. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa031884. ISSN 0028-4793.