Premature ventricular contraction prevention

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Premature ventricular contraction Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Premature Ventricular Contraction from other Disorders

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Diagnostic Study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings



Echocardiography and Ultrasound

CT scan


Other Imaging Findings

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Medical Therapy



Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

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Case #1

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Homa Najafi, M.D.[2] Radwa AbdElHaras Mohamed AbouZaied, M.B.B.S[3]


There are no established measures for the secondary prevention of [disease name].


Effective measures for the secondary prevention of [disease name] include [strategy 1], [strategy 2], and [strategy 3].

Secondary Prevention

There are no established measures for the secondary prevention of [disease name].


Effective measures for the secondary prevention of [disease name] include:

  • [Strategy 1]
  • [Strategy 2]
  • [Strategy 3]

Recommendations for Secondary Prevention of SCD in Patients With Ischemic Heart Disease

Class I
1. In patients with ischemic heart disease, who either survive SCA due to VT/VF or experience hemodynamically unstable VT (Level of Evidence: B-R)[1][2][3][4] or stable sustained VT (Level of Evidence: B-NR)[5] not due to reversible causes, an ICD is recommended if meaningful survival greater than 1 year is expected.

2. A transvenous ICD provides intermediate value in the secondary prevention of SCD particularly when the patient’s risk of death due to a VA is deemed high and the risk of nonarrhythmic death (either cardiac or noncardiac) is deemed low based on the patient’s burden of comorbidities and functional status (Level of Evidence: B-R).[6]

3. In patients with ischemic heart disease and unexplained syncope who have inducible sustained monomorphic VT on electrophysiological study, an ICD is recommended if meaningful survival of greater than 1 year is expected (Level of Evidence: B-NR).[7]


  1. "A Comparison of Antiarrhythmic-Drug Therapy with Implantable Defibrillators in Patients Resuscitated from Near-Fatal Ventricular Arrhythmias". New England Journal of Medicine. 337 (22): 1576–1584. 1997. doi:10.1056/NEJM199711273372202. ISSN 0028-4793.
  2. Connolly, Stuart J.; Gent, Michael; Roberts, Robin S.; Dorian, Paul; Roy, Denis; Sheldon, Robert S.; Mitchell, L. Brent; Green, Martin S.; Klein, George J.; O’Brien, Bernard (2000). "Canadian Implantable Defibrillator Study (CIDS)". Circulation. 101 (11): 1297–1302. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.101.11.1297. ISSN 0009-7322.
  3. Connolly, S (2000). "Meta-analysis of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator secondary prevention trials". European Heart Journal. 21 (24): 2071–2078. doi:10.1053/euhj.2000.2476. ISSN 0195-668X.
  4. Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Cappato, Riccardo; Siebels, Jürgen; Rüppel, Rudolf (2000). "Randomized Comparison of Antiarrhythmic Drug Therapy With Implantable Defibrillators in Patients Resuscitated From Cardiac Arrest". Circulation. 102 (7): 748–754. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.102.7.748. ISSN 0009-7322.
  5. Raitt, Merritt H.; Renfroe, Ellen Graham; Epstein, Andrew E.; McAnulty, John H.; Mounsey, Paul; Steinberg, Jonathan S.; Lancaster, Scott E.; Jadonath, Ram L.; Hallstrom, Alfred P. (2001). ""Stable" Ventricular Tachycardia Is Not a Benign Rhythm". Circulation. 103 (2): 244–252. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.103.2.244. ISSN 0009-7322.
  6. Owens, Douglas K.; Sanders, Gillian D.; Heidenreich, Paul A.; McDonald, Kathryn M.; Hlatky, Mark A. (2002). "Effect of risk stratification on cost-effectiveness of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator". American Heart Journal. 144 (3): 440–448. doi:10.1067/mhj.2002.125501. ISSN 0002-8703.
  7. Bass, Eric B.; Elson, James J.; Fogoros, Richard N.; Peterson, Jacqueline; Arena, Vincent C.; Kapoor, Wishwa N. (1988). "Long-term prognosis of patients undergoing electrophysiologic studies for syncope of unknown origin". The American Journal of Cardiology. 62 (17): 1186–1191. doi:10.1016/0002-9149(88)90257-3. ISSN 0002-9149.

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