Pulseless electrical activity echocardiography
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A rapid beside echocardiogram can identify several rapidly reversible causes of PEA such as cardiac tamponade, myocardial infarction, cardiac rupture and underfilling of the ventricle due to hypovolemia. Elevated right heart filling pressures suggest pulmonary embolism. Tension pneumothorax can also be observed on a bedside echocardiogram
PEA underlying causes are separated into primary and secondary forms. The secondary form includes the causes that result from an abrupt cessation of cardiac venous return. A rapid beside echocardiogram can identify several rapidly reversible and secondary causes of PEA. Echocardiography during CPR is beneficial to detect secondary causes that include easily treatable, reversible pathologies associated with PEA such as:
- Cardiac tamponade
- Myocardial infarction
- Cardiac rupture
- Underfilling of the ventricle due to hypovolemia
- Massive pulmonary embolism
- Acute malfunction of prosthetic valves
- Tension pneumothorax
- Robson R (2010). "Echocardiography during CPR: more studies needed". Resuscitation. 81 (11): 1453–4. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2010.09.009. PMID 20970912.
- Breitkreutz R, Price S, Steiger HV, Seeger FH, Ilper H, Ackermann H; et al. (2010). "Focused echocardiographic evaluation in life support and peri-resuscitation of emergency patients: a prospective trial". Resuscitation. 81 (11): 1527–33. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2010.07.013. PMID 20801576.