Sleep apnea screening
Sleep apnea screening On the Web
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However, commercial drivers, operators of heavy equipment, pilots, and other occupations at risk of diurnal sleepiness should be screened by history and physical exam using standardizes questionnaires.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Screening
- Commercial drivers, operators of heavy equipment, pilots, and other populations at risk from diurnal sleepiness should with be screened with a history and physical exam
- If OSA is suspected, a sleep study should be performed
- For patients with obstructive sleep apnea, screening questionnaires may be useful for preoperative and high risk patients
STOP BANG questionnaire
- Asks about the presence of loud snoring, apneas, excessive daytime sleepiness, and hypertension
- STOP BANG questionnaire combines the STOP questionnaire questions and adds BMI age, and neck circumference (increased sensitivity but decreased specificity compared to STOP questionnaire)
- A score of three or higher has a sensitivity and specificity of 84 and 56 percent for the diagnosis of OSA using an AHI threshold of >5 events per hour, and a sensitivity and specificity of 93 and 43 percent for an AHI >15 
- To view the STOP BANG questionnaire, click here
Sleep apnea clinical score (SACS)
- A four-item questionnaire that incorporates neck circumference, hypertension, habitual snoring, and nocturnal gasping or choking to generate a score ranging from 0 to 100
- Scores greater than 15 result in a probability of OSA (defined as an AHI >10 events per hour) of 25 to 50 percent
- The Berlin questionnaire consists of 10 items relating to snoring, nonrestorative sleep, sleepiness while driving, apneas during sleep, hypertension and BMI
- The results categorize patients as having a high or low risk for OSA
- A high risk score is associated with a sensitivity and specificity of 80 and 46 percent when OSA is defined as an AHI ≥5 events per hour, and 91 and 37 percent when OSA is defined as an AHI ≥15 events per hour
- To view the Berlin questionnaire, click here
Central Sleep Apnea Screening
There are no current screening guidelines for central sleep apnea.
- US Preventive Services Task Force. Bibbins-Domingo K, Grossman DC, Curry SJ, Davidson KW, Epling JW et al. (2017) Screening for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA 317 (4):407-414. DOI:10.1001/jama.2016.20325 PMID: 28118461
- Chung F, Yegneswaran B, Liao P, Chung SA, Vairavanathan S, Islam S; et al. (2008). "STOP questionnaire: a tool to screen patients for obstructive sleep apnea". Anesthesiology. 108 (5): 812–21. doi:10.1097/ALN.0b013e31816d83e4. PMID 18431116.
- Flemons WW, Whitelaw WA, Brant R, Remmers JE (1994). "Likelihood ratios for a sleep apnea clinical prediction rule". Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 150 (5 Pt 1): 1279–85. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.150.5.7952553. PMID 7952553.
- Myers KA, Mrkobrada M, Simel DL (2013). "Does this patient have obstructive sleep apnea?: The Rational Clinical Examination systematic review". JAMA. 310 (7): 731–41. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.276185. PMID 23989984. Review in: Evid Based Med. 2014 Apr;19(2):e10