Spontaneous coronary artery dissection risk factors

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Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection Microchapters



Historical Perspective




Differentiating Spontaneous coronary artery dissection from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Diagnostic Approach

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings






Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Treatment Approach

Medical Therapy

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Type 1

Type 2A

Type 2B

Type 3

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sara Zand, M.D.[2] Nate Michalak, B.A. Arzu Kalayci, M.D. [3]

Synonyms and keywords: SCAD


The risk factors for spontaneous coronary artery dissection include predisposing factors ( vasculopathy, pregnancy, connective tissue disorder, systemic inflammation) and precipitating stressors (e.g., strenuous exercise, emotional stress, recreational drugs).Features that raise the index of suspicion for SCAD include myocardial infarction in young women (age ≤50), absence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, little or no evidence of coronary atherosclerosis, peripartum state, history of fibromuscular dysplasia, history of connective tissue disorder or systemic inflammation.

Risk Factors

Risk factor Condition
Predisposing factors
Precipitating stressors


  1. Saw, Jacqueline; Mancini, G.B. John; Humphries, Karin H. (2016). "Contemporary Review on Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 68 (3): 297–312. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2016.05.034. ISSN 0735-1097.
  2. Saw, J.; Aymong, E.; Sedlak, T.; Buller, C. E.; Starovoytov, A.; Ricci, D.; Robinson, S.; Vuurmans, T.; Gao, M.; Humphries, K.; Mancini, G. B. J. (2014). "Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Association With Predisposing Arteriopathies and Precipitating Stressors and Cardiovascular Outcomes". Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions. 7 (5): 645–655. doi:10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.114.001760. ISSN 1941-7640.
  3. Adlam, David; Alfonso, Fernando; Maas, Angela; Vrints, Christiaan; al-Hussaini, Abtehale; Bueno, Hector; Capranzano, Piera; Gevaert, Sofie; Hoole, Stephen P; Johnson, Tom; Lettieri, Corrado; Maeder, Micha T; Motreff, Pascal; Ong, Peter; Persu, Alexandre; Rickli, Hans; Schiele, Francois; Sheppard, Mary N; Swahn, Eva (2018). "European Society of Cardiology, acute cardiovascular care association, SCAD study group: a position paper on spontaneous coronary artery dissection". European Heart Journal. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehy080. ISSN 0195-668X.
  4. Hayes, Sharonne N.; Kim, Esther S.H.; Saw, Jacqueline; Adlam, David; Arslanian-Engoren, Cynthia; Economy, Katherine E.; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Gulati, Rajiv; Lindsay, Mark E.; Mieres, Jennifer H.; Naderi, Sahar; Shah, Svati; Thaler, David E.; Tweet, Marysia S.; Wood, Malissa J. (2018). "Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Current State of the Science: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association". Circulation. 137 (19). doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000564. ISSN 0009-7322.
  5. Saw, Jacqueline; Humphries, Karin; Aymong, Eve; Sedlak, Tara; Prakash, Roshan; Starovoytov, Andrew; Mancini, G.B. John (2017). "Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 70 (9): 1148–1158. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2017.06.053. ISSN 0735-1097.