Systemic lupus erythematosus other diagnostic studies

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Systemic lupus erythematosus Microchapters


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Differentiating Systemic lupus erythematosus from other Diseases

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Case #1

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Mahshid Mir, M.D. [2]


Other diagnostic tests that can be used for diagnosis of complications include a barium swallow for stricture diagnosis, biopsies of the kidneys and the endometrium for further evaluation of the degree of involvement, paracentesis to evaluate effusions, and arthrocentesis to differentiate different causes of arthritis.

Other Diagnostic Studies


Fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial lung biopsies:[1][2]

  • To substantiate the diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage

Barium swallow or esophagography


  • Renal biopsies:[4][5]
    • Determining the degree of renal involvement
    • Delineating treatment decisions and prognosis in certain clinical scenarios
    • Assess activity and damage (i.e., chronicity)
    • Helping with classification



  • In the presence of joint effusion to differentiate between different causes of arthritis[10]


  1. Shen M, Wang Y, Xu WB, Zeng XJ, Zhang FC (2005). "[Pleuropulmonary manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus]". Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (in Chinese). 85 (48): 3392–5. PMID 16409858.
  2. Susanto I, Peters JI (1997). "Acute lupus pneumonitis with normal chest radiograph". Chest. 111 (6): 1781–3. PMID 9187214.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Jiménez-Alonso J, Estev D, Vera C, Sabio JM (2003). "Dysphagia in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus". Lupus. 12 (6): 493. PMID 12873055.
  4. Giannico G, Fogo AB (2013). "Lupus nephritis: is the kidney biopsy currently necessary in the management of lupus nephritis?". Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 8 (1): 138–45. doi:10.2215/CJN.03400412. PMID 22977215.
  5. Singh A, Ghosh R, Kaur P, Golay V, Pandey R, Roychowdhury A (2014). "Protocol renal biopsy in patients with lupus nephritis: a single center experience". Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 25 (4): 801–7. PMID 24969191.
  6. Salomone E, Tamburino C, Bruno G, Di Paola R, Silvestri F (1989). "The role of endomyocardial biopsy in the diagnosis of cardiac involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus". Heart Vessels. 5 a (1): 52–3. PMID 2684953.
  7. Prasad S, Abujam B, Lawrence A, Aggarwal A (2012). "Massive ascites as a presenting feature of lupus". Int J Rheum Dis. 15 (1): e15–6. doi:10.1111/j.1756-185X.2011.01659.x. PMID 22324961.
  8. Palavutitotai N, Buppajarntham T, Katchamart W (2014). "Etiologies and outcomes of pleural effusions in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus". J Clin Rheumatol. 20 (8): 418–21. doi:10.1097/RHU.0000000000000179. PMID 25417677.
  9. Kruzliak P, Novak M, Piler P, Kovacova G (2013). "Pericardial involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: current diagnosis and therapy". Acta Cardiol. 68 (6): 629–33. doi:10.2143/AC.68.6.8000011. PMID 24579442.
  10. Goldenberg DL, Cohen AS (1978). "Synovial membrane histopathology in the differential diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, gout, pseudogout, systemic lupus erythematosus, infectious arthritis and degenerative joint disease". Medicine (Baltimore). 57 (3): 239–52. PMID 642792.