TIMI thrombus grade

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Coronary Angiography


General Principles

Historical Perspective
Appropriate Use Criteria for Revascularization
Film Quality

Anatomy & Projection Angles

Normal Anatomy

Coronary arteries
Right System
Left System
Left Main
Left Anterior Descending
Median Ramus

Anatomic Variants

Separate Ostia
Anomalous Origins
Case Example

Projection Angles

Standard Views
Left Coronary Artery
Right Coronary Artery

Epicardial Flow & Myocardial Perfusion

Epicardial Flow

TIMI Frame Count
TIMI Flow Grade
TIMI Grade 0 Flow
TIMI Grade 1 Flow
TIMI Grade 2 Flow
TIMI Grade 3 Flow
TIMI Grade 4 Flow
Pulsatile Flow

Myocardial Perfusion

TIMI Myocardial Perfusion Grade
TMP Grade 0
TMP Grade 0.5
TMP Grade 1
TMP Grade 2
TMP Grade 3

Lesion Complexity

ACC/AHA Lesion-Specific Classification of the Primary Target Stenosis

Preprocedural Lesion Morphology

Intimal Flap
Sawtooth Pattern
Ostial location
Proximal tortuosity
Degenerated SVG
Total occlusion
Coronary Artery Thrombus
TIMI Thrombus Grade
TIMI Thrombus Grade 0
TIMI Thrombus Grade 1
TIMI Thrombus Grade 2
TIMI Thrombus Grade 3
TIMI Thrombus Grade 4
TIMI Thrombus Grade 5
TIMI Thrombus Grade 6

Lesion Morphology

Quantitative Coronary Angiography
Definitions of Preprocedural Lesion Morphology
Irregular Lesion
Disease Extent
Arterial Foreshortening
Infarct Related Artery
Degenerated SVG

Left ventriculography

Quantification of LV Function
Quantification of Mitral Regurgitation

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]


In order to more objectively and quantitatively characterize thrombus on a coronary angiogram, Dr. C. Michael Gibson of the TIMI study group developed and popularized the following thrombus grading system:[1]

TIMI Thrombus Grade 0

No cineangiographic characteristics of thrombus present.

TIMI Thrombus Grade 1

Hazy, possible thrombus present. Angiography demonstrates characteristics such as reduced contrast density, haziness, irregular lesion contour, or a smooth convex "meniscus" at the site of total occlusion suggestive but not diagnostic of thrombus.

TIMI Thrombus Grade 2

Thrombus present – small size: Definite thrombus with greatest dimensions less than or equal to 1/2 vessel diameter.

TIMI Thrombus Grade 3

Thrombus present – moderate size: Definite thrombus but with greatest linear dimension greater than 1/2 but less than 2 vessel diameters.

TIMI Thrombus Grade 4

Thrombus present – large size: As in Grade 3 but with the largest dimension greater than or equal to 2 vessel diameters.

TIMI Thrombus Grade 5

Recent total occlusion, can involve some collateralization but usually does not involve extensive collateralization, tends to have a “beak” shape and a hazy edge or appearance of distinct thrombus.

TIMI Thrombus Grade 6

Chronic total occlusion, usually involving extensive collateralization, tends to have distinct, blunt cut-off/edge and will generally clot up to the nearest proximal side branch.

Natural History, Complications, Prognosis

The presence of angiographically evident thrombus (AET) as assessed using the TIMI Grade described above is associated with embolization and impaired myocardial perfusion.[2][3]


  1. Gibson, CM.; de Lemos, JA.; Murphy, SA.; Marble, SJ.; McCabe, CH.; Cannon, CP.; Antman, EM.; Braunwald, E. (2001). "Combination therapy with abciximab reduces angiographically evident thrombus in acute myocardial infarction: a TIMI 14 substudy". Circulation. 103 (21): 2550–4. PMID 11382722. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. Kirtane AJ, Vafai JJ, Murphy SA, Aroesty JM, Sabatine MS, Cannon CP; et al. (2006). "Angiographically evident thrombus following fibrinolytic therapy is associated with impaired myocardial perfusion in STEMI: a CLARITY-TIMI 28 substudy". Eur Heart J. 27 (17): 2040–5. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehl149. PMID 16847010.
  3. Kirtane AJ, Weisbord A, Karmpaliotis D, Murphy SA, Giugliano RP, Cannon CP; et al. (2005). "Relation of impaired Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction myocardial perfusion grades to residual thrombus following the restoration of epicardial patency in ST-elevation myocardial infarction". Am J Cardiol. 95 (2): 224–7. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.09.007. PMID 15642554.

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