Testicular cancer risk factors

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Common risk factors in the development of testicular germ cells cancer are undescended testicle, family history, personal history of testicular cancer, and Klinefelter syndrome. There are no known risk factors for testicular sex cord stromal tumors.

Common Risk Factors

Common risk factors for testicular germ cells tumors include:[1][2][3]

Less Common Risk Factors for testicular germ cells tumors

Less common risk factors include:[1][5]

Testicular sex cord stromal tumors risk factors

  • There are no known risk factors for testicular sex cord stromal tumors.[8][9][10]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Khan O, Protheroe A (October 2007). "Testis cancer". Postgrad Med J. 83 (984): 624–32. doi:10.1136/pgmj.2007.057992. PMC 2600126. PMID 17916870.
  2. 2.0 2.1 McGlynn KA, Trabert B (April 2012). "Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer". Nat Rev Urol. 9 (6): 339–49. doi:10.1038/nrurol.2012.61. PMC 4031676. PMID 22508459.
  3. Boccellino M, Vanacore D, Zappavigna S, Cavaliere C, Rossetti S, D'Aniello C, Chieffi P, Amler E, Buonerba C, Di Lorenzo G, Di Franco R, Izzo A, Piscitelli R, Iovane G, Muto P, Botti G, Perdonà S, Caraglia M, Facchini G (November 2017). "Testicular cancer from diagnosis to epigenetic factors". Oncotarget. 8 (61): 104654–104663. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.20992. PMC 5732834. PMID 29262668.
  4. Ghazarian AA, Kelly SP, Altekruse SF, Rosenberg PS, McGlynn KA (June 2017). "Future of testicular germ cell tumor incidence in the United States: Forecast through 2026". Cancer. 123 (12): 2320–2328. doi:10.1002/cncr.30597. PMC 5629636. PMID 28241106.
  5. "Testicular cancer: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia".
  6. Powles T, Bower M, Daugaard G, Shamash J, De Ruiter A, Johnson M, Fisher M, Anderson J, Mandalia S, Stebbing J, Nelson M, Gazzard B, Oliver T (May 2003). "Multicenter study of human immunodeficiency virus-related germ cell tumors". J. Clin. Oncol. 21 (10): 1922–7. doi:10.1200/JCO.2003.09.107. PMID 12743144.
  7. Bray F, Richiardi L, Ekbom A, Forman D, Pukkala E, Cuninkova M, Møller H (April 2006). "Do testicular seminoma and nonseminoma share the same etiology? Evidence from an age-period-cohort analysis of incidence trends in eight European countries". Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 15 (4): 652–8. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0565. PMID 16614105.
  8. Nicolai N, Necchi A, Raggi D, Biasoni D, Catanzaro M, Piva L, Stagni S, Maffezzini M, Torelli T, Faré E, Giannatempo P, Pizzocaro G, Colecchia M, Salvioni R (February 2015). "Clinical outcome in testicular sex cord stromal tumors: testis sparing vs. radical orchiectomy and management of advanced disease". Urology. 85 (2): 402–6. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2014.10.021. PMID 25623702.
  9. Rove KO, Maroni PD, Cost CR, Fairclough DL, Giannarini G, Harris AK, Schultz KA, Cost NG (November 2015). "Pathologic Risk Factors in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients With Clinical Stage I Testicular Stromal Tumors". J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 37 (8): e441–6. doi:10.1097/MPH.0000000000000445. PMID 26479987.
  10. Al-Agha OM, Axiotis CA (February 2007). "An in-depth look at Leydig cell tumor of the testis". Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 131 (2): 311–7. doi:10.1043/1543-2165(2007)131[311:AILALC]2.0.CO;2. PMID 17284120.

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