Urinary incontinence historical perspective
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urinary incontinence was first described by ancient Egyptians in 1500 BC that resulted from spinal cord injury. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) described the internal sphincter at the neck of the bladder in his drawings. In 1564, several portable urinals was developed by Ambros Pare to treat urinary incontinence in males. In the 1600s, the condom catheter with pig bladder was first designed by Wilhem Hildanus. In 1747, a perineal bulbar urethral compression belt was first innovated by Lorenz Heister. In 1988, Botulinum toxin A [Botox] was introduced for detrusor sphincter disorder secondary to spinal cord injury. In 1929, the modern urethral catheter was first developed by Frederic Foley to control postoperative bleeding after suprapubic prostatectomies.
- urinary incontinence was first described by ancient Egyptians in 1500 BC that resulted from spinal cord injury. 
- Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) described the internal sphincter at the neck of the bladder in his drawings.
- In 1564, several portable urinals was developed by Ambros Pare to treat urinary incontinence in males. 
- In the 1600s, the condom catheter with pig bladder was first designed by Wilhem Hildanus. 
- In 1747, a perineal bulbar urethral compression belt was first innovated by Lorenz Heister. 
Landmark Events in the Development of Treatment Strategies
- In the 17-19th centuries, some natural medications with anticholinergic and antidiuretic effects including opium, strychnine, and atropine were introduced as a therapeutic strategy for urge incontinence. 
- In 1858, carbonic acid with chloroform was used by J.Rhodes to treat nocturnal incontinence in an old man. 
- In 1929, the modern urethral catheter was first developed by Frederic Foley to control postoperative bleeding after suprapubic prostatectomies.
- In 1962, reflexive therapy was introduced by T. Dickson for urge incontinence secondary to neurogenic bladder. 
- In the late 19th , Robert Gersuny treated urinary incontinence with injecting paraffin into the urethra and periurethral areas. 
- Others injectable bulking agents have been found for curing the urinary incontinence, including    
- Since 20th century, new urethral injection therapies such as stem cell therapy have been developed for treating urinary incontinence.
- In 1988, Botulinum toxin A (Botox) was introduced for detrusor sphincter disorder secondary to spinal cord injury. 
- After FDA approval of Botox injection in 2011, it has been used for treating urinary incontinence in neurogenic detrusor overactivity and patients who cannot tolerate anticholinergic medications. 
Development of Treatment Strategies
- Chong JT, Simma-Chiang V (2018). "A historical perspective and evolution of the treatment of male urinary incontinence". Neurourol Urodyn. 37 (3): 1169–1175. doi:10.1002/nau.23429. PMID 29053886.
- Schultheiss D, Grünewald V, Jonas U (1999). "Urodynamics in the anatomical work of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)". World J Urol. 17 (3): 137–43. doi:10.1007/s003450050121. PMID 10418086.
- Schultheiss D, Höfner K, Oelke M, Grünewald V, Jonas U (2000). "Historical aspects of the treatment of urinary incontinence". Eur Urol. 38 (3): 352–62. doi:10.1159/000020306. PMID 10940713.
- "Incontinence of Urine Treated by the Local Application of Carbonic Acid Gas with Chloroform".
- Heer H (1977). "[Treatment of Urinary incontinence by Teflon injection (author's transl)]". Urol Int. 32 (4): 295–302. doi:10.1159/000280145. PMID 929773.
- Jordan O, Doelker E, Defabiani N, Caviezel A, Iselin C (2004). "Novel injectable urethral bulking agents for the treatment of urinary incontinence". J Mater Sci Mater Med. 15 (4): 519–22. doi:10.1023/b:jmsm.0000021131.15283.18. PMID 15332628.
- Yamamoto T, Gotoh M, Kato M, Majima T, Toriyama K, Kamei Y; et al. (2012). "Periurethral injection of autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells for the treatment of male stress urinary incontinence: Report of three initial cases". Int J Urol. 19 (7): 652–9. doi:10.1111/j.1442-2042.2012.02999.x. PMID 22435469.
- Thornton AJ, Alsberg E, Hill EE, Mooney DJ (2004). "Shape retaining injectable hydrogels for minimally invasive bulking". J Urol. 172 (2): 763–8. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000130466.84214.f7. PMID 15247778.
- Dykstra DD, Sidi AA, Scott AB, Pagel JM, Goldish GD (1988). "Effects of botulinum A toxin on detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia in spinal cord injury patients". J Urol. 139 (5): 919–22. doi:10.1016/s0022-5347(17)42717-0. PMID 3361663.
- Linsenmeyer TA (2013). "Use of botulinum toxin in individuals with neurogenic detrusor overactivity: state of the art review". J Spinal Cord Med. 36 (5): 402–19. doi:10.1179/2045772313Y.0000000116. PMC 3739890. PMID 23941788.