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WikiDoc Resources for Urology


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Articles on Urology in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ


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Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Urology

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Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Urology at Clinical Trials.gov

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Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Urology

NICE Guidance on Urology


FDA on Urology

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Definitions of Urology

Patient Resources / Community

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Directions to Hospitals Treating Urology

Risk calculators and risk factors for Urology

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Urology

Causes & Risk Factors for Urology

Diagnostic studies for Urology

Treatment of Urology

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Urology


Urology en Espanol

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Urology in the Marketplace

Patents on Urology

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Urology

Steven C. Campbell, M.D., Ph.D.


Urology is the specialty of medicine that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the reproductive system of males. Medical professionals specializing in the field of urology are called urologists and are trained to diagnose, treat, and manage patients with urological disorders. The organs covered by urology include the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis).

In men, the urinary system overlaps with the reproductive system, and in women the urinary tract opens into the vulva. In both sexes, the urinary and reproductive tracts are close together, and disorders of one often affect the other. Urology combines management of medical (i.e., non-surgical) problems such as urinary infections, and surgical problems such as the correction of congenital abnormalities and the surgical management of cancers. Such abnormalities within the genital region are called genitourinary disorders.

Urology is closely related to, and in some cases overlaps with, the medical fields of nephrology, andrology, gynecology, proctology and oncology.

Branches of urology

As a discipline that involves the study of many organs and physiological systems, urology can be broken down into subfields. Many urologists, particularly those involved in research, choose an informal specialization in a particular field of urology.

  • Neurourology involves the study of nervous system control of the genitourinary system, and of conditions causing abnormal urination. Neurological diseases and disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and spinal cord injury can disrupt the lower urinary tract and result in conditions such as urinary incontinence, overactive bladder, urinary retention, and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. Less marked neurological abnormalities can cause urological disorders as well -- for example, abnormalities of the sensory nervous system are thought by many researchers to play a role in disorders of painful or frequent urination (e.g. interstitial cystitis).[1] Urodynamic studies play an important diagnostic role in neurourology; urologists often use diagnostic techniques such as flow cystometry or ambulatory urodynamic profiles to determine the best method of treatment for the patient. Medical therapy for nervous system disorders includes drugs that target the nervous system and neuromodulation.

Other subfields of urology include stone disease, sexual dysfunction and male infertility.


Further reading

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External links

ar:طب المسالك البولية و التناسلية ca:Urologia i andrologia da:Urologi de:Urologie eu:Urologia ko:비뇨기과 hr:Urologija id:Urologi it:Urologia he:אורולוגיה nl:Urologie no:Urologi fi:Urologia sv:Urologi

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